Employing in Türkiye

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Expanding into
Türkiye

Expanding into Türkiye offers many opportunities for International companies. The Republic of Türkiye, which officially changed its name from ‘Turkey’ in June 2022, lies at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. The country is a bridge between the two continents with a regional prominence that makes it an obvious target for International Expansion.

Ruined Athena Temple in Assos, Turkey

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The bulk of Türkiye’s landmass is in West Asia, with a Black Sea coastline and borders with Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan (just 13 kilometres), Iran, Iraq and Syria. In its northwest corner, Türkiye has European borders with Greece and Bulgaria in the Balkan Peninsula, while the southern coastline runs alongside the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas.

Türkiye is within three hours by air of most major European cities and logistically well-placed for expansion into West Asia and further east. Expanding into Türkiye can bring excitement to the possibilities and significant stress to ensuring the entity with the country’s rigid legal structures and laws. Going at it without the proper support can increase the costs, time and risks involved. Ensuring compliance without sufficient knowledge of the country’s laws also adds stress to getting your new entity off the ground and ready to test new markets.

Global expansion is a step for any business, regardless of your goal. The opportunities that can come with an expansion can be inspiring as well as intimidating and confusing, especially when you consider all the registration procedures that need to be done and the documentation required. Each new market brings new challenges.

These can be worked through more efficiently and cost-effectively with the support of a Professional Employer Organisation (PEO) such as Bradford Jacobs, primarily through our Employer of Record (EOR) framework. This can be best utilised when businesses are just beginning their expansion process and require more information before incorporating an entity and fully establishing themselves in that market.

Country EOR Guide - Bradford Jacobs

Download our Guide to Türkiye

Learn all about expanding into Türkiye and see what we can do to make your expansion easier.

Download our Guide to Türkiye

Learn all about expanding into Türkiye and see what we can do to make your expansion easier.

Country EOR Guide - Bradford Jacobs

Hiring Staff
in Türkiye

Hiring Staff
in Türkiye

The Main Sectors of the Turkish Economy

The country focuses on the following key sectors, which all have a significant impact on the country’s economy:

It is an established sector which continues to demonstrate growth. Türkiye’s ambition to switch to 5G, likely to happen soon, is among the leading reasons why telecommunications are and will continue to be a key sector for investors.

This sector has kept growing before and during the pandemic. Since 2000, the total investment volume of global brands in the Turkish automotive industry has reached €16 billion. Türkiye is the world’s 14th and Europe’s 4th largest automotive manufacturer, with nearly 74% of its vehicle production targeting international markets. Further, Türkiye aims to develop its high-tech, electric vehicles and offer them to the market shortly.

It is an integral part of the economy. Half of the land is agricultural, employing 18% of the workforce and providing 10% of exports and 7% of GDP in 2020. There are half a million farmers. Türkiye is a major producer of wheat, sugar beets, milk, poultry, cotton, tomatoes, and other fruits and vegetables. As of 2021, Türkiye is the world’s largest producer of hazelnuts and apricots.
Türkiye ranks 8th in the list of countries by steel production. Türkiye’s crude steel production reached a record high of 34.1 million tons in 2011. In 2013, total steel production was 29 million tonnes.
One of the leading industries in Türkiye. In the 2000s, the number of countries in which Turkish contractors worked increased considerably, and that caused the percentage of work in each country to decrease relatively. Nevertheless, the Russian Federation maintained the first rank (14.66%) and was followed by Romania (11.46%) and Kazakhstan (9.55%).
In 2019, Türkiye ranked sixth in the world regarding international tourist arrivals, with 51.2 million foreign tourists visiting the country. Over the years, Türkiye has become a popular tourist destination for many Europeans, competing with Greece, Italy and Spain. Resorts in provinces such as Antalya and Muğla (located on the Turkish Riviera) have become very popular among tourists.
The Turkish banking sector is among the most robust and expansive in East Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia.
There are numerous private hospitals in Türkiye which have benefited from medical tourism in recent years. Six hundred sixty-two thousand eighty-seven patients were treated at Turkish hospitals in 2019 within the scope of health tourism, with around 60% of the income obtained from plastic surgeries. Health tourism generated revenues worth €1 billion in 2019 for the country’s economy.

The Main Sectors of the Turkish Economy

The country focuses on the following key sectors, which all have a significant impact on the country’s economy:

Hierapolis Ancient City Theater, Pamukkale, Denizli, Turkey
It is an established sector which continues to demonstrate growth. Türkiye’s ambition to switch to 5G, likely to happen soon, is among the leading reasons why telecommunications are and will continue to be a key sector for investors.

This sector has kept growing before and during the pandemic. Since 2000, the total investment volume of global brands in the Turkish automotive industry has reached €16 billion. Türkiye is the world’s 14th and Europe’s 4th largest automotive manufacturer, with nearly 74% of its vehicle production targeting international markets. Further, Türkiye aims to develop its high-tech, electric vehicles and offer them to the market shortly.

It is an integral part of the economy. Half of the land is agricultural, employing 18% of the workforce and providing 10% of exports and 7% of GDP in 2020. There are half a million farmers. Türkiye is a major producer of wheat, sugar beets, milk, poultry, cotton, tomatoes, and other fruits and vegetables. As of 2021, Türkiye is the world’s largest producer of hazelnuts and apricots.
Türkiye ranks 8th in the list of countries by steel production. Türkiye’s crude steel production reached a record high of 34.1 million tons in 2011. In 2013, total steel production was 29 million tonnes.
One of the leading industries in Türkiye. In the 2000s, the number of countries in which Turkish contractors worked increased considerably, and that caused the percentage of work in each country to decrease relatively. Nevertheless, the Russian Federation maintained the first rank (14.66%) and was followed by Romania (11.46%) and Kazakhstan (9.55%).
In 2019, Türkiye ranked sixth in the world regarding international tourist arrivals, with 51.2 million foreign tourists visiting the country. Over the years, Türkiye has become a popular tourist destination for many Europeans, competing with Greece, Italy and Spain. Resorts in provinces such as Antalya and Muğla (located on the Turkish Riviera) have become very popular among tourists.
The Turkish banking sector is among the most robust and expansive in East Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia.
There are numerous private hospitals in Türkiye which have benefited from medical tourism in recent years. Six hundred sixty-two thousand eighty-seven patients were treated at Turkish hospitals in 2019 within the scope of health tourism, with around 60% of the income obtained from plastic surgeries. Health tourism generated revenues worth €1 billion in 2019 for the country’s economy.

Commercial Laws in
Türkiye

  • The Turkish Revenue Administration is a public institution of the Turkish Republic operating under the Ministry of Finance. The Revenue Administration is responsible for levying and collecting state taxes and respecting taxpayer rights within Constitutional Law and tax legislation framework.
  • The Tax Communication Centre, affiliated with Revenue Administration, provides consulting services about tax-related issues, denunciation management and motor vehicle tax issues. It also provides consulting services to foreigners via e-Mail Service in English.
  • Employment legislation is based on a mix of the Constitution of Türkiye (which officially changed its name from ‘Türkiye’ in June 2022), the Labour Code and the Code of Obligations. A series of supplementary Codes apply to Work Permits for Foreigners, Collective Bargaining Agreements (CBAs) and Workplace Health and Safety, as examples. Employment legislation applies equally to Turkish and foreign citizens.

General requirements

  • Written employment contracts are legally required when employing foreigners; fixed-term contracts of at least one year’s duration; probation periods; those with a non-competition clause; on-call, teleworking, and temporary workers.
  • Where written contracts are not mandatory, employers must provide a written agreement within two months of starting work. The agreement must detail working conditions and hours, salary and payment schedule, and termination conditions.
  • Probation periods are generally for two months but can be extended to four months by CBAs.
  • Written contracts must be in Turkish if both sides are Turkish. Otherwise, they can be drafted in dual languages according to the nationality of either party. The Turkish version holds in case of disputes.

Commercial Laws in
Türkiye

Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, Turkey
  • The Turkish Revenue Administration is a public institution of the Turkish Republic operating under the Ministry of Finance. The Revenue Administration is responsible for levying and collecting state taxes and respecting taxpayer rights within Constitutional Law and tax legislation framework.
  • The Tax Communication Centre, affiliated with Revenue Administration, provides consulting services about tax-related issues, denunciation management and motor vehicle tax issues. It also provides consulting services to foreigners via e-Mail Service in English.
  • Employment legislation is based on a mix of the Constitution of Türkiye (which officially changed its name from ‘Türkiye’ in June 2022), the Labour Code and the Code of Obligations. A series of supplementary Codes apply to Work Permits for Foreigners, Collective Bargaining Agreements (CBAs) and Workplace Health and Safety, as examples. Employment legislation applies equally to Turkish and foreign citizens.

General requirements

  • Written employment contracts are legally required when employing foreigners; fixed-term contracts of at least one year’s duration; probation periods; those with a non-competition clause; on-call, teleworking, and temporary workers.
  • Where written contracts are not mandatory, employers must provide a written agreement within two months of starting work. The agreement must detail working conditions and hours, salary and payment schedule, and termination conditions.
  • Probation periods are generally for two months but can be extended to four months by CBAs.
  • Written contracts must be in Turkish if both sides are Turkish. Otherwise, they can be drafted in dual languages according to the nationality of either party. The Turkish version holds in case of disputes.

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