For decades Poland’s economy has been dominated by three leading industries: agriculture, manufacturing and mining. Even though agriculture and manufacturing still play a significant role in the country’s future, they are slowly losing their positions to the newly emerging industries.


The Automotive sector is one of the key branches of the Polish economy. Its significance is reflected in the labour market. Around 180,000 people work in the automotive manufacturing industry, making it the fourth largest industrial employer in the country.

Business Services

The business Services Sector, consisting of BPO, IT, SSC and R&D companies, is one of the fastest-developing industries in Poland. It benefits from the global trend of centralisation of back office functions, where the availability of skilled and dedicated employees together with labour costs arbitrage are the most important factors when deciding about the future locations of business.

Defence and aerospace

Poland has embarked on an ambitious plan of investment in and modernisation of the Polish armed forces. Combined with the statutory target of military spending at 2% of the GDP (one of the highest among NATO countries, and intended to be raised in the not-so-distant future), the outlook for the Polish Defence sector looks auspicious.

Information and Communications Technology

Poland maintains its leading position as a near-shore destination for ICT companies from Western and Northern Europe. Poland was also the ‘number one’ destination in the CEE region in terms of R&D projects, driven essentially by international software companies.


Additionally, the ICT industry influences the growth of the outsourcing sector in Poland. The average year-on-year growth of this sector in Poland is estimated at around 20% and according to the Polish Investment and Trade Agency, more than 40% of all outsourcing centres in CEE are located in Poland.


Closing the infrastructure gap between the demands of modern society and the current capabilities are the main criteria of prosperity considered by key policy stakeholders in Poland. Investments in various types of infrastructure maintain a key role in the convergence of the Polish economy since the EU accession.

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